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ICI 164th Huaxia Curriculum Forum ║ The Emergence of National system of knowledge production- compettiton, nation and the evolution of planned science


This report mainly revolves around the formation and operation of "planning science" and its "national system". Professor Liu Chao focused on the phenomenon of research topics that are common in universities at present, starting with the organizational form of scientific research, and traced the formation and diffusion of "Science Plan" outside the region and evolution process in China.

Based on the global history since modern times, Professor Liu Chao first outlined the scientific research forms led by Western European countries such as France and Germany in the early modern times, and the development of "planning science" in the Soviet Union driven by world wars. Furthermore, the report introduces the audience into the start of modern scientific research in China and the exploration and practice of a series of "scientific plans". The earliest new scientific research in China began in the Beiyang period, and the focus of scientific research was initially limited to individual academic societies and research institutions of government departments. Since then, the establishment of Academia Sinica in 1928 and the launch of team-based scientific research in universities in 1929 have officially promoted the substantial progress of "organized scientific research"; with the expansion of the scientific research system, the importance of "planning science" has also been highlighted. During this period, state power beyond specific institutions nationalized universities and knowledge. China's knowledge production has quickly caught up with the mainstream of world academic change.

China's national-level "science plan" has been planned in the early 1940s, but its real promotion began after the founding of New China. Under the national decision-making and planning of the "big science" plan, with the establishment of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the development of key universities, and the formulation and implementation of the national scientific development plan, people, money, and materials across the country have been able to achieve success under the intervention of state forces. The "planning science" under the "whole-nation system" began to operate substantively. This mode of knowledge production has shaped the state of China's scientific research in the future, contributed to breakthroughs in several important scientific and technological fields, and greatly enhanced China's international status. Next, Professor Liu Chao introduced the foundation of the nationwide system in terms of knowledge, knowledge and people, knowledge production methods, and the social functions of knowledge. Professor Liu Chao starts from the dialectical relationship between private and public knowledge, and believes that knowledge is essentially public wealth, that the social operation of knowledge is inseparable from the power of the organization, and that the source innovation of knowledge depends to a large extent on personality and creativity of "specific people".

In the end, Professor Liu Chao returned to the observation of reality from historical analysis, and discussed the influence of multiple combined forces on the trend of science, the impact of war on the progress of science and technology, and the "generational gap" between China and Western science and technology (knowledge systems). The report examines the process of nationalization and globalization of knowledge in the grand perspective of a long period of history, and re-examines the inherent resilience/strength and continuity of knowledge in the "nationwide development under the system".

During the exchange session, the participating teachers and students discussed issues like "organized scientific research", "independent talent training", "military-civilian integration", "the tension between the interests of foundations, universities and other institutions and the national system", "the relationship between transnational attributes and nation-states", “How do researchers in the history of education realize the organic integration of history and theory" and "separation of education history and social history" , and Professor Liu Chao responded to the relevant issues respectively.